Solutions for the Dysfunctional Interplay of Immunology and Neurophysics in Autistic Syndromes

I am pleased to announce my association with The Brain Treatment Center (BTC) in Newport California.  Dr. Jin and his associated staff and researchers have made incredible breakthroughs in complex areas of brain functional restoration.

In 1998, Carol Stock Kranowitz wrote a book called the Out of Sync Child. It detailed her observations of sensory processing disorders in children she had taught over the prior 20 years. Although I am sure she didn’t intend the book to describe asynchronous neurophysics – her observations were true and ultimately insightful.

It turns out the brain cannot perform its many complex tasks without a high degree of synchronous electrical activity. Very much like computer circuitry – asynchronous brain activity uses too much energy to be efficient. That means those areas of the brain demand more oxygen and glucose, which results in excessive production of oxidative stress and mitochondrial overload.  It also means they don’t share data effectively with other brain centers.

When it comes to autism, most of the observations from the BTC reveal 50% or more the brain in autism functions asynchronously, and we label those issues as autism.

The good news is a technique has been developed to restore synchronous activity and with that many children are seeing remarkable and rapid gains in language and cognition.

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Figure 1. Major areas of the left hemisphere of the brain.  Wernicke’s area is where words start to form and Borca’s area is where they are finalized prior to the message being sent to the motor cortex with the command to speak. The temporal lobe adjacent to Wernicke’s area is where the primary auditory cortex resides.

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Figure 2. fMRI of the synchronous activity of the brain required to speak novel words.

Many areas of the brain connect simultaneously to create spoken language and it is easy to see how minor aberrations in these areas could result in difficulty with expressive language typically observed in autism.

Figure 3. This represents a color translation of the mathematical transformation of the EEG into a power-frequency map; meaning how much energy is present at different wavelengths.  As you can see only about half the brain picks up this synchronized waveform.  In the color map the left side of the brain shows the language and auditory cortex is not in sync and also includes the frontal cortex including the primary social cortex of the R frontal lobe area.

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Figure 4. This imaging shows the out of sync areas of the brain are consuming the highest amount of oxygen, yet they are not effectively functioning.

Figure 5, Represents the same child’s brain after 3 treatments with magnetic resonance therapy – a special form of rTMS (external magnetic therapy). The color map shows very substantial changes in synchronized brain activity and with that language and eye contact showed very impressive changes.

This is a dramatic change in the sync pattern and with it a remarkable change in language, eye contact and reduced self-stimulatory behaviors. This child had been treated with GcMAF and with that it appears the brain was primed to rapidly respond.  Its not that all children need some form of immunotherapy to respond to MRT, but in this case the response was particularly dramatic.

So how did the asynchronization of  the brain happen in the first place?  the evidence points to a immunologically mediated alarm signaled through the connections of the perivascular macrophage>endothelial (blood vessel) cells>astrocyte and microglial cells. These cells create the immune axis of the brain and it designed to nurture and protect the neurons (brain cells).  If it triggers an alarm brain cells stop talking and so do kids with autism.

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Figure 6. Represents this complex dynamic, but it does depict the extremely important interneurons that regulate the harmonic synchronization of the brain.

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Figure 7. Here we see the intensely important relationship of the large electrical circuit cell (pyramidal) to the double bouquet interneuron cells.

The DB interneurons create the GABA that inhibits noisy signals and regulates the pyramidal cell’s activity. Those same DB cells also create reelin which build networks and connections for the brain.  DB interneurons are very sensitive to immune alarm signals and appear to be a primary source of the immune axis disruption of normal brain harmonic signals.

It appears to me that with correction of the immune signals to the DB interneurons and then using MRT to capture the DB sync, child can be rapidly restored to higher function.

I will write more about this exciting breakthrough in coming weeks but for now I hope this starts you thinking and hoping.

Introducing an Enhanced Way to Treat Allergy in Extremely Sensitive Individuals.

At a minimum, 8 million Americans suffer with significant allergies. This costs each one of them annually about $2000 in OTC and prescriptive copayments (if they have insurance) and results in far more expensive complications like sinus infections, asthma, poor sleep, lost school or work attendance, and even up to 15 points on standardized IQ testing. That’s a lot to give up for overreacting to dust mites, pollens or the family pet.

Picture of one of my patients after simple prick testing for 58 antigens and 2 controls.

allergy reaction skin test 1

As you can see, several of these are remarkably severe reactions.

Antihistamines can causes drowsiness, increased risk of infections, and increase the risks of seizures. Nasal steroids also increase the risk of infection and can cause adrenal suppression with the loss of bone strength. 

With all of these potential risks, it makes sense to try preventing the allergic reactions.

One of the ways we block the body’s allergy response is to create immunity to the allergy with chronic exposure via either injections or sublingual antigens (the medical term for the thing causing the allergy). This process is called immunotherapy and its various forms (primarily shots and drops under the tongue) have been subjected to rigorous scientific evaluations and numerous publications.

Despite these well published and accepted desensitization techniques,  I have faced extraordinary challenges in treating children with allergies when they are combined with autism, PANDAS, PANS or ADHD type of issues.  Repeatedly I have observed remarkable behavioral reactions to even low dose sublingual (under the tongue) therapy.  Children with these disorders often respond to allergy desensitization with increased self-stimulatory behaviors, worsened inattention, and increased hyperactivity, so obviously this defeats the purpose.

The problem is the doses required in standard protocols expose these very sensitive children to far too much provocation with resultant adverse clinical responses.

Below is the accepted protocol for sublingual immunotherapy, rapidly escalating the dose of antigen to the maintenance dose of 15-25 micrograms of antigen per dose.  The  dose for shots is less but equally harmful to this population.

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Despite the level of scientific evidence favoring drops under the tongue (SLIT) your insurance company will claim this is unproven and experimental.  They are stuck in past and are actually financially incentivizing doctors to expose your child to the severe reaction potential of shots (known as SCIT).  Allergy shots have a known risk of death and severe asthmatic reactions.  This prompted the many governments is Europe to move away from paying for SCIT in favor of the far safer SLIT.  We in the US are unfortunately stuck with our anachronistic insurance system.  However, the out of pocket costs for SLIT are less than the costs of OTC allergy medications and with much better long term results.

From the same article:

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But even standard SLIT protocols present the very reactive child (or adult) with far too much antigen in the early phases of the protocol.

So about a month ago I called Susan Harris, a pharmacist at Greer Laboratories (a leading pharmacy producing allergy therapies). I explained my observations about excessive reactions in my special needs population to all  of the standard protocols. After some productive discussions, we developed what I call the Harris-Bradstreet SLIT allergy desensitization protocol.

This protocol involves 5 steps from very dilute exposures leading eventually to the traditional maintenance levels as published above. There are 5 levels until maintenance; with each level lasting 5 weeks, and within each level there are 5 step-ups.  So it takes 25 weeks to reach maintenance levels.

The cost of the Harris-Bradstreet protocol will very based on the number antigens required, but most families find it very affordable and worth the difference based on the reduced side-effects. If you are interested in this safe alternative for special needs cases please contact my office at 470-253-7445. 

A First for GcMAF therapies

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I am very pleased to be a part of the first conference and symposium on the therapeutic benefits of GcMAF for a wide range of immunological disorders.  The conference is open to the public and both physicians and interested persons are invited to attend.  Please go to the website below and follow the links for registration.

http://gcmafconference.org/

Speakers
  • Dr Jeff Bradstreet, MD
  • Professor Marco Ruggiero MD
  • David Noakes
  • PD Dr Hendrik Treugut
  • Emar Vogelaar PhD
  • Dr Roland Lugten
  • Dr Robert Eslinger
  • Dr Mikael Nordfors
  • Dr Martin Stöppler
  • Dario Siniscalco Chem D PhD
  • Dr Cem Kinaci
  • Joan Crawford MIChemE
  • Dr Gabriele Morucci PhD
  • Dr Steven Hofman

A mother of a teenager with autism reports on his progress from stem cells at EmCell in Ukraine.

I have pursued every reasonable form of therapy for children with autism.  Stem Cells remain a controversial and complex area of intervention for autism, Despite that a significant percentage of patients are experiencing significant gains.  This case reported by the mother below is one of those success stories.  At this time I would estimate about 50% of children and young adults with autism who receive stem cells at the EmCell center see similar or better results.  Her child had an immediate positive effect which became sustained with time.  If you need more information on stem cells – please contact my office.  As a courtesy we provide a 1/2 hour consult at no cost to explain the process.  this requires scheduling and Ashley in my office can help you.  470-253-7445 or email her at bradstreetrec@gmail.com  

Patient: G.O.
Gender: Male
Age:14
Country: Canada
Diagnosis: Autism
Treatment dates: May 21-22, 2012
Four months after the treatment, we received the following letter from the patient’s mother:
Dear Dr. Bradstreet, 
As you know, G. is 14 and 6 foot 8 inches tall. We had the pleasure of visiting EmCell together with my friend V. B. and her son M. in May of 2012. So we are four months out from treatment.

G. was exceptionally well engaged the day after stem cells as well as the following 10 days as a positive predictor for success and due to growth factors as we were advised at EmCell.
He was flapping and non-verbal (he was somewhat verbal regularly but day of exam he just sat and flapped and I interpreted). The second day before the stem cells he walked into the clinic and said “Hello, good morning. I’m just going down to my room and can you bring me breakfast” (hilarious and fantastic at the same time). I called him back and said: “Hey G. you need to put your booties on.”
He came back and put them on … himself (he needs help with this kind of stuff). He has size 14 feet (to match his age) so he was ripping them as they weren’t big enough. He just wanted to get back into the stem cell room.
The docs started to ask how he was and asked me to take his shirt off so they could exam him. Well he laid down on the bed and took his own shirt off as he has heard them and then I just stood back and he let them examine him. I have an amazing shot of him full on eye contact as he watched and stayed in focus during their exam.
The day after our stem cells we had hired a tour guide and went to St.Vladimirs cathedral to give thanks. Our lovely guide had suggested we go in separately as parents and leave the children outside by the van. When I came out, G. said “Mum, I want to go in the church.” He wouldn’t ever have said that before … so I said “Really?” he said “Yes, I want to go in the church.” In we went. The first thing he did was look at the candles and up and the ceiling and he said “Oh, Mum, look at the lights and look at the candles.” He just looked all around him in awe. It was so cool to see and hear and he would not have said anything like that before. He would have gone in and flapped and looked at the ground.
On the flight home he turned to me and said. “Hey Mum when are you going to pick up your new car and can I come with you?” So for the 10 days after we came home I really didn’t want to leave his side because he was a different kid…
Then we sort of went back to the way things were with lots of flapping but bits and pieces of things coming out. Doctors had told us he would flap a lot more than usual and he did. But…
He also was sleeping earlier and more easily. As long as I can remember G. would need someone to snuggle with him in order to go to sleep and as he got older he would flap and thump the floor with his feet from anywhere between 11pm and 1.30 am and nothing would stop him. Not melatonin low or high dose, not diphenhydramine, not cipralex… But after EmCell he would be asleep at 10pm for sure and on occasion would put himself to bed at 9.30pm saying “I’m tired, can I go to bed now.” Really great news for the entire house.
…G. is 6 foot 8 inch so the first thing people say is “WOW he is tall, bet he is good at basketball.” I just laugh and let it go b/c he can’t shoot hoops at all. Until after stem cells.
You could barely get him to catch a ball before and if you asked him to shoot he would turn his head away from the hoop and thrust the ball at the net. No arc no direction. Now he could catch the ball if it was bounced off the ground and then he would hold the ball over his head and arc it up and get a basket every time (Ok he’s not running or jumping b/c he can’t do that yet, and hasn’t to date so don’t get the wrong idea that he’s a basketball prodigy. But gee he is now arcing a ball into a hoop (and granted at 6 foot 8 its not a huge arc). BUT we have been shooting hoops his entire life and nada… so this is great. He sees better, he can focus better and he has intention.
So we flapped the summer away and then he went back to school. Private school for kids with severe autism. Kids are 12 to 18 years old. He’s been in the same sort of group class for the last 3 years.
First day at school. They asked G. if he wanted to play pop up pirate. “No, I’m over it !!” (new expression for G. and awesome use of slang).
Day 2. G. fine motor skills have really improved over the summer (he was doing beading). G. is 75% independent in his after school routine compared to 50% last year. He said “I can’t wait to tell my Mum and new practicum teacher is starting … and he did when he got home … He would rarely tell me anything about school before.
Also “G. has not exhibited any of the attention seeking behaviors we saw last year.
Day 6. G. is more confident in his cooking skills and is taking more initiative to independently answer questions and volunteer in class (no prompting! in the past pretty much prompting required).
Day 10. Last year G. needed prompting to raise his hand in music to answer a question 80% of the time. This year he is 100% independent.
Sept 15th. We ran cold probes today to see where G. was at retaining his typing skills. The target mastered words were Mum, Dad and G. G. easily recalled the spelling of each word but was having difficulty tracking on the keyboard. After 2 teaching cycles he went from 10 seconds of tracking down to 3 to 5 seconds and we introduced a new target word—his sister’s name—which he mastered right away and they thought this was WONDEFUL for G.
I could keep going but you get the drift. G. still needs a lot of help in school but he has definitely changed since stem cells. They tell us he has more language, more focus and more intent and interest. And we are only 4 months out…
We are so happy with the results, believe me. You are an awesome collective.
G. asks regularly “Mum when are we going back to the Ukraine?”
Much love.
S.O., G.’s proud Mum.

A mother’s report of rapid reduction in aggression and self-injurious behaviors in her 8 year child with autism following GcMAF

The following is copied directly from and email I received and used with permission. I am proud to have been a part of uncovering this therapy for autism and you can read the full paper at the following link: http://www.la-press.com/initial-observations-of-elevated-alpha-n-acetylgalactosaminidase-activ-article-a3450

I do not recommend using this therapy without expert advise from a physician.

Dr. Bradstreet,

I just wanted to update you on D’s progress with GcMAF. We just took our 10th shot. It has been nothing short of amazing the transformation he has made. Our biggest gain by far has been a total elimination of aggression and SIB (self-injurious behaviors). Over the last 6.5 years we have tried almost everything to help D. We have done Yasko (4 years), IVIG, GFCF, SCD, 20-25 hours a week of ABA, ABA based school program, UCLA partial hospitalization program, LDN, Homeopathy, Risperdal, Zyprexa and much much more. Some things helped, but all in all just not that much.

My biggest fear was that one day I would no longer be able to control D, and that time was fast approaching. At over 75lbs and almost 5 feet tall sometimes it would take 2 or 3 people to control D when he went into a rage. Even when he was in a good mood, and no demands we put upon him he would attack people. Daily he would bite, scratch and head-butt. This often resulted in school staff being sent home with injuries,or sent to see a doctor.

By our 4th week on GcMAF we have seen a 75% reduction in aggression and now at our 10th week we have not seen any aggression in over a month. I want to thank you from the bottom of my heart for bringing GcMAF to the autism community it has changed my son’s life.

D still has many challenges, he’s nonverbal, has OCD and is not fully toilet trained. We still have a lot of work to do. But every week is better than the last and we are hopeful for D’s future.

Thank You,

Rosemary

27 Casseroles and the 23 Psalm: Reflections on a Small Town Southern Funeral

I recognize readers of this blog expect cutting edge healthcare discoveries, but sometimes I just need to indulge my philosophical side. From a doctor’s perspective death may be viewed as the ultimate defeat.  Despite this dark side, it remains a teacher of truths not easily taught.   Steve Jobs learned this in time to share it with us: “Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the most important tool I’ve ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything – all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure – these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important.”

My wife’s father, Randy, just passed. Passed is what Southerners call dying so they can tell a friend or a loved one the person has died without saying he died. Of course they all know it means he died, but the gentleness of this process is all part of the complex Southern traditions revolving honoring the deceased while caring for the living.

In some ways, its hard to tell a Southern funeral from a big wedding reception. There’s crying and laughing and storytelling and hugging and all kinds of relatives you don’t usually see. At both events, people talk about the people getting buried or married when they were children ,while sneaking in a previously guarded secret or two.

No decent, self-respecting Southerner would ever consider me a real Southerner despite my having lived close to 40 years in the South.  To them I’m just a Yankee transplant, and this weekend’s funeral would prove them right. This was my first full-on Southern funeral. A circumstance that actually made a lot of folks laugh sympathetically while checking on me to see how I was holding up. You see, I’m from South Bend, Indiana, but my people (as they say in the South), are all from Iowa.  That makes me a Midwesterner everywhere in the US, except in the real South, where it just makes me a Yankee. But that’s okay because my Southern relations are at least puttin’ up with me. By the way, I only pretend to talk Southern, whereas my wife and her folks truly speak Southern; so much so that there were times I needed a Rosetta Stone translator.

My father in-law lived in Boiling Springs, North Carolina, but he was born up the mountain in Asheville. Nearly all of his life was spent within a few miles of those cities. Boiling Springs is an honest-to-goodness one-stoplight town with less than 5000 official residents.

Despite its obvious smallness, Boiling Springs has its sophisticated side.  It’s also the home to Gardner-Webb University which boasts an enrollment about equal to the rest of the town. All this means just about everyone in town had a story to tell about Randy and sharing those with the family would be an integral part of the process.

The small-town Southern passing experience, as I am learning it, is a multi-day event.  It started tragically when my mother in-law, Renna woke to find that her husband of 43 years had passed while she was sleeping. The frantic 911 call was quickly followed by calls to her kin and friends.  Even though Randy was far from healthy, no one expected him to be going anytime soon.  Earlier that week he had been to a Gardner-Webb basketball game and drove himself to the store several times to buy milk – more on that later.

The paramedic, police, medical examiner, coroner process took several hours and added to the pain of his loss, but it was required given the unexpected nature of his passing. During that time the call went out to more friends and relatives, and obviously to my wife. We live 3 hours away outside of Atlanta, but we managed to arrive on the scene by early afternoon.  By then, Renna had the comfort of what seemed like an endless stream of friends and relatives.  Food – not that she was in any mood to eat – had already started to pile up in the kitchen.

And food, as anyone familiar with the Southern passing-funeral process knows, is an important part of the tradition. It’s acceptable to start with store-bought food on day one – particularly if it is an unexpected passing, but after that most everything switches to homemade and handmade traditional specialties. In this part of the real South that means casseroles -  actually 27 different casseroles by the end of the process 3 days later.  The local Baptist church provided fresh breakfast every day.  It featured Southern delicacies like made from scratch biscuits with pork, country bacon (not like the kind you city folks are used to), and fried chicken (of course), with blueberry muffins, cornbread, and buckets of sweet tea, Coke and Sun Drop.

The menu for this three day gathering was amazing even by Presidential inaugural standards (Randy was buried on the 21st of January as the President took his oath of office for his second term).  I’ve come to learn the general rule for Southern vegetables is that they are best fried, or boiled until limp, or even better put in a casserole.  One night I asked my wife what I was eating. Unable to identify it from its appearance she bravely took a bite and pronounced – “ Oh that’s veg-all casserole” as though I would know what that meant.  So I replied –“Okay – what’s in it?” Naturally, she replied “veg-all and mayonnaise”.  Of course I should have guessed that.

If all this is getting you hungry, chances are you were born in the South. By contrast, if you’re going yuck, most likely you’re from California.

The following day was interspersed around the endless buffet served for the benefit of the grieving and those gathered to pay their respects, with trips to the funeral home and cemetery . That’s when I learned real Southerners bury their relatives and don’t believe in cremation. Ashes to ashes is clearly in the Bible, but people from the real Bible times were all buried – sure enough.  That meant we needed to select the burial vault and casket for Randy’s resting place – Southern for grave. And if the folks at the funeral home and cemetery weren’t already friends or relatives (remember it’s a small town) they practically would be kin before its all over.  Love, warmth, kindness, empathy and care flowed from the staff at the Cecil M. Burton funeral home and Cleveland County Memorial Park.

Since no advanced preparations were made, we in the family sorted out all the details and along with the relatives that came down from the mountain, picked out the casket much like you pick out a new car.  Color, added features like a tray to put cards and letters in, inside and outside decorations were all discussed. As strange as that may seem, it was an time of support, sharing, and an important process for honoring Randy’s life and respecting his family. It wasn’t until later that I really got the significance of a fancy casket and what it means to real Southerners, but I’ll get there.  For now, my practical, scientific and medical side told me it’s just a box we bury in the ground, but from the Southern perspective it’s much more than that. I was clever enough to read the social cues and see just how serious everyone was about doing Randy right. In the end he got a very attractive burgundy and gold colored casket with lots of trimmings. Earlier that day we bought him a new suit, shirt and tie just for his special occasion. Of course we had to make sure the tie and shirt colors went with the casket.  Fortunately – they did.

Naturally, it was back to the house for more food.  During this time, Renna wasn’t able to stay at her home, so her friend and fellow school teacher, Miss Jane, took us all in.  Now Jane just tells it plain and straight up, and generally with a substantial dose of humor and sarcasm added in for fun. Once we told Jane about the casket she seemed very relieved. Seems her grandmother was a simple and unpretentious woman who just wanted to be buried in her pajamas with a simple casket.  Jane said, “It looked just like a cardboard box, Whatever you do don’t bury me in a BOX!”

I thought for a moment about debating the point with her, but fortunately held back to absorb more of this unique and important journey.

The next part of Southern funeral is fashion – of course. Now this get’s a bit tricky because the girls all want to look good without being flashy – or what might be considered trashy by church folks. Given the trends in current fashion, that can be a little challenging. This necessitated a trip back to the home so Renna could select a suitcase full of clothes so that on the actual day she would have the right combination. Natural the weather forecast had to be considered as well – high in the mid 50s, but breezy and clear.  Eventually we arrived at the appropriate combination of style and warmth for the next day’s events for both Renna and my wife.

Between the selection of a casket and the burial was an extra day where the family had a private viewing of Randy at the funeral home.  This was a time of open casket, tears and hugs. It was a private and important part of the passing process.

As most of your know, my stepson has autism.  He has made great progress of late and the events of this passing were evidence of his maturity and growth.  Oddly, for the past month he had been obsessed with riding in a limo – based on the recent Alvin and the Chipmunk movie.  When we told him he would ride in a limo the next day he immediately put on his best behavior.

The day of the funeral the limo arrived and he was all smiles.  He still hadn’t grasped the process. By Southern custom, the family arrives early and has another private time with their loved one. This was his first time to see his grandfather. It was a remarkable process. He studied his grandfather, spoke to him, asked him if he was alright, tried to comfort him and then said, “I’m going to tell you a story. Everyone was pretending to be asleep and then they died and went to heaven and then they said AHHHH! and it was all better.”  WOW.  His story went on for quite sometime and it was amazing.

After this a line formed with people from the community coming to pay their respects to the family.  I met step-grand aunts and cousins I didn’t even know I had.  As you may suspect – they came down the mountain and they were good people. Following Baptist customs the family and the pastor retired to a room in the back, prayed and then came back into the main sanctuary of the church.  By the time we were back from prayer the church was full.  There the beautiful burgundy and gold casket, new suit, shirt and tie, all became an important part of the honor paid to Randy.

After a few hymns and the reading of the 23rd Psalm (if you can’t say it from memory you need to learn it better), we went to the grave site. Pretty much everyone came to the cemetery.  After prayers and the commitment of his spirit to God, everyone talked to the family and friends for about an hour.  After this everyone went to Jane’s for more casseroles, fried chicken, okra, cornbread and an endless array of desserts.

This process builds strength in communities through connectedness and family ties.  It is lacking in many of us – certainly it was in me.  My family moved a lot. I went to 5 different elementary schools and have lived in Indiana, Ohio, Florida, Texas, Illinois, Arizona, California, North Carolina and Georgia, and in the Air Force I was stationed in Egypt and Germany. My wife asked me where I called home?  Hmmm. I’m not sure.  Georgia is starting to feel like home, but for sure I am glad I have a Southern wife and in-laws who come down from the mountain when it counts.

“You never know how much you really believe anything until its truth or falsehood becomes a matter of life and death to you.”
― C.S. Lewis

I know this – children with autism have far more insight with their spirits than we understand and death teaches us all what is valuable in life.

In memory of Randy Shook – his family and friends will miss him.

Application of Cell Therapy for Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders: a call for papers

The new year starts out with Hindawi Publishers (Stem Cells International) seeking to expand the scientific literature on a complex and controversial aspect of autism potential therapies – stem cell therapies. I was pleased to be asked to be a guest editor for this special issue. 

Here is the full call for papers and the link to the website. If you are a professional working with cell therapies please consider submitting a manuscript for consideration. 

Call for Papers: Stem Cells International

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogenous neurodevelopmental pathologies characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication and by restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour. Commonly, the symptoms are apparent before 3 years of age. Together with other related neurodevelopmental insults, ASDs have been recognized as a major public health problem. Prevalence rates for ASDs are increasing rapidly. The lack of specific biomarkers for diagnosis provides challenges for disease monitoring and hampers therapeutic selections. There are currently no approved treatments for the underlying pathophysiologies of ASDs. Psychopharmacological interventions provide partial relief for only some dysfunctional behaviour. Currently available therapeutic strategies for ASDs can be divided into behavioural, nutritional-biomedical, and pharmacological therapies. Cell therapy represents the great promise for the future of molecular and regenerative medicine. Several types of cells offer a valid approach to curing several untreatable human neurodegenerative diseases. Based on recent advances in the understanding of immunological pathologies associated with ASDs, it appears that cell therapies could be designed to target the observed molecular mechanisms of these disorders. We invite authors to contribute original research articles, as well as review articles, that will focus on the novel findings on molecular, biochemical, and cellular basis of ASDs to provide scientific rationale for cell and stem cell applications. Papers describe new insights into ASD using animal models and potential stem cell clinical applications are encouraged. 

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

Recent insights in ASD research

Identification of potential ASD biomarkers

Recent advances in animal models of ASDs

Potential therapeutical application of cells in ASDs

Rationale for a possible use of several types of cells in autism-related psychiatric disorders

Before submission authors should carefully read over the journal’s Author Guidelines, which are located at http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/guidelines/. Prospective authors should submit an electronic copy of their complete manuscript through the journal Manuscript Tracking System at http://mts.hindawi.com/submit/journals/sci/asds/ according to the following timetable:

Manuscript Due Friday, 10 May 2013

First Round of Reviews Friday, 2 August 2013

Publication Date Friday, 27 September 2013

Lead Guest Editor: Dario Siniscalco, Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Caserta, Italy

Guest Editors

James Jeffrey Bradstreet, International Child Development Resource Center, Cumming, GA, USA

Chen Lin, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Rehabilitation Centre, Beijing, China

Alessio Fasano, Center for Vaccine Development, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA

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