The Autism Nexus: New Discovery of a Link Between the Gut Microbiome, the Immune System, Brain Dysfunction and Vitamin D and Vitamin D Binding Protein (GcMAF)

I am very proud of our recent work published in the highly regarded Journal of Inflammation.  By clicking on the hyperlink you browser should take you straight to the article which is available for no cost at the journal’s website. Once you are there click on the pdf button (the yellow arrow shows you where to click once you get to the article on the web).  Before you jump to article page let me explain in easier language why this article is so important. It is the first article any of us as authors have written that was accepted without any critique or changes, which means the reviewers thought very highly of it. While that is important, it is only part of the significance of our findings.  It has always bothered me that minor changes on the gut bacteria and yeast (microbiome) could result in wild and crazy changes in a child’s behaviors. While that observation is common among those of us treating the biology of autism, it was actually very difficult to understand mechanistically at the level of the child’s biology, at least until now.

We believe we have uncovered the nexus (intersection) of the observations regarding Vitamin D deficiency, GcMAF observed improvements in behavior, see: , immune dysregulation, brain inflammatory changes (mostly in microglial regulation), and the microbiome.  Briefly, the endocannabinoid system is part of the cell systems that regulate the immune system and the brain. In particular, it seems the CB2R (cannabinoid 2 receptor) reads the background environment of the individual (diet, microbiome, etc) and sets the tone of the immune defenses.  Last year we published the first observations of CB2 dysfunction in autism (J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Nov;43(11):2686-95. doi: 10.1007/s10803-013-1824-9.). With this follow on work it seems likely that the endocannabinoid system is at the center of the complex biomedical disruptions underpinning the autism epidemic we are observing.  Now for your homework. Go the Journal of Neuroinflammation website and get the entire article. After you read it you can ask you questions. (use the link provided in the first paragraph).


JNI Article facepage

Parents comment on “AMAZING” changes from new GcMAF protocol.

I met Sergio and his parents one day after the end of the First Immune GcMAF conference in Frankfurt, Germany (also the first conference ever dedicated to GCMAF).  During that conference I had a chance to interact with researchers from around the World and also meet parents from Russia, England and the Middle East. Professor Ruggerio and I had an opportunity to share our data and he demonstrated his ultrasonographic observations of immediate beneficial effects on the brain and vascular system from GcMAF.  Professor Morucci, also from the University of Florence, shared the cell culture results of GcMAF influencing neuronal stem cell development. My collaborator, Professor Siniscalco from the Second University of Naples, also presented some exciting new data on the effects of GcMAF on autistic immune cells.  These combined lectures along with my private conversations with them, inspired me to alter my original protocol for GcMAF therapy. I will be explaining this more in my talks at Autism One in Chicago this weekend.  I encourage you to get there. It is an amazing conference with lots of sharing of information.  I will also be spending 9 days in Italy in June to further our research (I know what your thinking, and yes I intend to enjoy Italy and more importantly – the wonderful Italian friends and colleagues I have come to know).

I am just now hearing back from the parents after the first month of treatment.  This is an example of a common response.

“Dr. Bradstreet,

Following up on our call today, we wanted to give you some feedback on Sergio’s progress with GcMAF. We started on 4/22/13 at your office, and are doing shots twice a week. We just finished our fourth week.

Sergio was diagnosed with high functioning autism 3 years ago. He is 5 years old now and will be going to Kindergarten this next school year. His mayor struggles have been language, socializing, and extreme rigidity, needing to have full control of decisions, situations, demands, etc.

We started seeing improvement right away with his language after a couple of shots. IT IS ABSOLUTELLY AMAZING!!! Overall we are seeing Sergio more present. He now often responds to questions the first time and using HIS OWN LANGUAGE, not just yes or no. This is huge for us. He is picking and using his own words in a correct way, not just using simple words or repetitive phrases.

Prior to GcMAF, we always had to repeat ourselves several times before he would pay attention to us. Now is, “good morning, Sergio” and he replies right away, “good morning, mommy, daddy”. Also, “Sergio, how are you?” before after several times he would say just ok. Now he replies “I am fine, mommy”. He is playing with his toys and narrating what is happening in his pretend play. He is also playing more with his sister. Just Sunday he wanted to play hide and seek and was asking me to play with him and his sister. The habit for me is to help him with his phrases. I told him, “Why don’t you ask daddy if he wants to play too. Ask him, daddy do you want to play hide and seek”. Then he went to daddy and told him, “daddy, we are playing hide and seek, do you want to join us?” I just started laughing, crying, and giving high fives to my husband after telling him what just happened. I told my husband. “We are getting Sergio back, we are getting Sergio back”!

His rigidity has up until now also compelled him to always try to have control of decisions or situations. Before, he would do anything to make sure things are getting done his way, even to try and fool us, teachers, therapist, etc. And he would fool many into thinking he was doing what they wanted when he actually had changed the demand to be more in his favor. He constantly had to change demands to make it more his way and not the other persons way. School implemented “my way” card system, where every time he wanted to change a demand, he would have to use one of these cards. The school reported the other day that they stopped using the cards to see what would happen. Sergio did great 95% of the day. He only had just one minor instance.

Sergio has 4 different speech therapists. There is one who he has been seeing for a year already. She is really good but Sergio always had a lot of behavioral issues with her because he could not get it his way with her at all. The last 3 weeks Sergio has been absolutely wonderful at her therapy.

Family members keep telling us how amazed they are with Sergio’s change. It is a wonderful feeling. We just cannot find the words to say thank you. But THANK YOU!!! We have been doing many things to improve Sergio’s life for more than 3 years. We are not there yet, but we are so much closer. Now that he is more “present,” we can focus on improving rather than just treading water. Nothing has made an improvement this fast and this HUGE.”

A Special THANKS to this family for sharing. 

A First for GcMAF therapies


I am very pleased to be a part of the first conference and symposium on the therapeutic benefits of GcMAF for a wide range of immunological disorders.  The conference is open to the public and both physicians and interested persons are invited to attend.  Please go to the website below and follow the links for registration.

  • Dr Jeff Bradstreet, MD
  • Professor Marco Ruggiero MD
  • David Noakes
  • PD Dr Hendrik Treugut
  • Emar Vogelaar PhD
  • Dr Roland Lugten
  • Dr Robert Eslinger
  • Dr Mikael Nordfors
  • Dr Martin Stöppler
  • Dario Siniscalco Chem D PhD
  • Dr Cem Kinaci
  • Joan Crawford MIChemE
  • Dr Gabriele Morucci PhD
  • Dr Steven Hofman

A mother’s report of rapid reduction in aggression and self-injurious behaviors in her 8 year child with autism following GcMAF

The following is copied directly from and email I received and used with permission. I am proud to have been a part of uncovering this therapy for autism and you can read the full paper at the following link:

I do not recommend using this therapy without expert advise from a physician.

Dr. Bradstreet,

I just wanted to update you on D’s progress with GcMAF. We just took our 10th shot. It has been nothing short of amazing the transformation he has made. Our biggest gain by far has been a total elimination of aggression and SIB (self-injurious behaviors). Over the last 6.5 years we have tried almost everything to help D. We have done Yasko (4 years), IVIG, GFCF, SCD, 20-25 hours a week of ABA, ABA based school program, UCLA partial hospitalization program, LDN, Homeopathy, Risperdal, Zyprexa and much much more. Some things helped, but all in all just not that much.

My biggest fear was that one day I would no longer be able to control D, and that time was fast approaching. At over 75lbs and almost 5 feet tall sometimes it would take 2 or 3 people to control D when he went into a rage. Even when he was in a good mood, and no demands we put upon him he would attack people. Daily he would bite, scratch and head-butt. This often resulted in school staff being sent home with injuries,or sent to see a doctor.

By our 4th week on GcMAF we have seen a 75% reduction in aggression and now at our 10th week we have not seen any aggression in over a month. I want to thank you from the bottom of my heart for bringing GcMAF to the autism community it has changed my son’s life.

D still has many challenges, he’s nonverbal, has OCD and is not fully toilet trained. We still have a lot of work to do. But every week is better than the last and we are hopeful for D’s future.

Thank You,


Research on Nagalase and GcMAF now published in Autism Insights

I am happy to announce the publication of our initial observations regarding the important issues of Nagalase activity in ASD.  The lab test itself only cost $65 from Health Diagnostics/ELN.  Unfortunately it is generally not covered by most insurers in the US, but it is a worthwhile examination in my estimate.

This work represents the first clinical report of Nagalase activity in an autistic population. The article presents the first 40 children evaluated from 2 years ago. Since then and in collaboration with Dr Antonucci in Italy, we have observed over 1400 clinical cases. We will be collating our combined experiences and presenting-publishing a much larger series in the near future.  Simply stated, both Dr Antonucci and I believe Nagalase and GcMAF therapy represent  breakthroughs in autism-related comorbidities and therapies. We do caution parents enthusiastic to try this intervention to seek appropriate and experienced medical supervision. I am aware of numerous physicians in the US and around the World using this intervention. 

Please Note: Neither the lab test, nor GcMAF are approved for diagnosing or treating any condition despite a substantial body of research in peer-reviewed journals over the past 2 decades.

You can read and download the entire article from the Libertas Academia website through the following link. If the link doesn’t work in your browser just copy and paste it into your browser.

La Press

Initial Observations of Elevated Alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase Activity Associated with Autism and Observed Reductions from GC Protein—Macrophage Activating Factor Injections

Authors: James Jeffrey Bradstreet, Emar Vogelaar and Lynda Thyer

Publication Date: 10 Dec 2012

Citation: Autism Insights 2012:4 31-38


Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are developmental disorders affecting 1:88 children, and which appear to be associated with a variety of complex immune dysregulations including autoimmunity. The enzyme, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) deglycosylates serum Gc protein (vitamin D3 – binding protein) rendering it incapable of activating macrophage defenses. Increased Nagalase activity has been associated with a variety of malignancies, immune disorders and viral infections. Macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) has been repeatedly published as an intervention to lower serum Nagalase activity for a variety of cancer and HIV patients. GcMAF is a naturally occurring protein with well-established safety and therapeutic benefit(s) supported by numerous human studies.

Methods: Initially, parents of 40 individuals with ASD sought testing for Nagalase serum activity as part of an evaluation of immune dysregulation. Nagalase enzyme activity measurement was performed by the European Laboratory of Nutrients (ELN), Bunnik, the Netherlands, using an end-point enzymatic assay of a chromogenic substrate. Some parents of patients with elevated Nagalase activity opted for weekly GcMAF injections provided by Immuno Biotech Ltd., Guernsey UK ( GcMAF is purified from human serum obtained from the American Red Cross using 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-Sepharose high affinity chromatography. The protein is then further diluted to obtain therapeutically appropriate levels for patients based on their clinical presentations.

Results: Individuals with ASD (32 males and 8 females, n = 40, ages: 1 year 4 months – 21 years 2 months) had initial and post treatment assessment of Nagalase activity. Dosing of GcMAF was recommended based on previously reported response curves adjusted by the treating clinician for age, weight, and Nagalase levels. The average pre-treatment Nagalase activity of the autism group was 1.93 nmol/min/mg of substrate. This was well above the laboratory reported normal range of <0.95 nmol/min/mg. For the ASD group the average level at the time of second testing was 1.03 nmol/min/mg, reflecting an average reduction of 0.90 nmol/min/mg (P < 0.0001). Apart from the likely immunological benefits of lowering the Nagalase activity of these individuals, uncontrolled observations of GcMAF therapy indicated substantial improvements in language, socialization and cognition. No significant side-effects were reported during the course of injections.

Conclusions: In this first report of Nagalase activity in patients with autism, it appears that most individuals have substantially higher levels than the expected healthy ranges. Although Nagalase is a nonspecific marker of immune dysregulation, its observed levels in autism may have both etiological and therapeutic significance. Importantly, this is also the first report of reduction of Nagalase activity in an autism population with GcMAF injections.

More parent observations on the combined benefits of GcMAF and EmCell stem cells.

The hardest thing to do as a parent of a child with autism is to keep trying and to not lose hope. The following story is also available at I asked if it was ok to post and her parents agreed to share the information with all of you. Marilyn Rose is now almost 6 and in April, 2012 she had her first course of EmCell therapies using fetal derived stem cells.  She was a tough kid to get response from and at 5 plus years old she essentially had no language and was in her own world.  With persistent parents who refused to give up the family put together the funds to get stem cell therapies and to provide GcMAF at low doses to support her immune system.  The combination (persistence, GcMAF, and Stem Cells) is paying off. Here is her story.

Hi Valentino and Dr. Bradstreet,
We are very excited to give you Marilyn’s more recent update.  When I last wrote EmCell in May, we were thrilled because Marilyn was imitating vowel sounds with prompting (after having a baseline of mostly nonverbal, only speaking a word every few months).  Marilyn has developed so much more since May!!

Marilyn now repeats any and almost all words, and this month has started with spontaneous speech and singing!!  She is now fully potty trained and brings herself to the bathroom independently to use the restroom.  She uses utensils with all meals (pre-stem cell treatment she had using a spoon on her therapy plan for a year and without making any gains).  She also learned to swim in the past 2 months.  She shows such a deeper level of thinking now, as an example, she will pick out her own clothes and is even starting to dress herself independently (she never showed interest in clothes before treatment and would not assist in dressing herself).

We are so happy to see such progress for Marilyn and are so thankful to EmCell and Dr. Bradstreet for helping us get this far.  We are also excited to see what the upcoming months hold for her.

We just finished a week of Dolphin Therapy in Key Largo and have applied for horse therapy next!!  I’ve attached two of Marilyn’s pictures from her time at Island Dolphin Care.


Thank you for all of your help!!

Understanding GcMAF from the Mind of Autism

I need to hear as much from inside the mind of autism as I can.  I need to know what they feel, think, experience and how they process.  I helps me as a physician/researcher to bring them more of what THEY desire.  Scott has been my patient since 2005 – he is now 22 and in college. He didn’t speak until after age 31/2 when he started on Sporanox ® a systemic antifungal medication.

Like many children with autism he had bowel disease and needed Pentasa® a medication designed for reducing serious gut inflammation.

He also had seizure-like activity and took Depakote® a medication which is commonly used in pediatric neurology circles despite its damaging effects on mitochondrial activity.

He struggled with prosody, that quality of speech where words flow effortlessly and meter, loudness and subtlety are natural expressions of mood and intent. He had no friends and really no desire for friends.

That was 7 years ago.  Now enter GcMAF – the latest addition to his parent’s  efforts at a FULL recovery. But this is from him directly – not his parents, and that makes it ever so much more valuable.

Dear Dr. Bradstreet,

I just wanted to let you know what improvements I have seen since taking the GCMAF:

  • Hear more of conversations so asking more on topic questions and understanding the answers better
  • Better comprehension all around
  • More fluid speech
  • Speech is slower and more enunciated. Much more understandable.
  • Less cracking joints on purpose
  • Used to feel urge to shake whole body, not anymore
  • Stopped biting nails
  • Less dizziness
  • Facial and verbal emotional expressions are falling within normal ranges, esp. laughter
  • Developing interest in new things
  • Enjoying new foods
  • It seems like the brain’s pathways are finally talking to each other. Visual and auditory are being processed together to form the whole.

In addition, I require a refill on the GCMAF.

Hope all is well where you are at.



Stem Cell Therapies (after GcMAF) Showing Promise in Older Children with Autism

I have know this young man, now 15 years old for a long time (12 years in fact). He has progressed with the help of a restricted diet, chelation of mercury, a variety of supplements and medications have had their beneficial effects. then about 9 months ago we started our homeopathic GcMAF and it was a significant boost to his language and appropriateness. Then as you will see the family sought the help of stem cells through EmCell.  You can read the story below.  I will be teaching on stem cells and GcMAF at Autism One in Chicago at the end of March and also in the UK at Brunel University in September. This family has also been able to greatly reduced the use of medications to stimulate focus and attention after stem cell therapies.

Look for my article on stem cells in Autism Science Digest – on newsstands everywhere.

Dear Dr. B,

I just wanted to update you on our son’s progress 6 weeks post Stem Cells . He is 15 years of age as of May 5, 2012.

He is a great kid that is still moderately affected from Autism (although much better than he was even a year ago). Since Stem Cells he has been much more compliant and aware of life. He comments on things now that before he was not at all interested in. His sleep patterns are improving, as we now have to wake him up in the mornings for school! (REALLY BIG DEAL!! since he used to be awake at 5AM). His teachers at school have commented that he is happy and showing much more personality than ever before.

We even see an overall growth in his level of maturity that is really exciting!! He still has a long way to go but by the Grace of GOD we will continue to push through this journey called Autism.


A Grateful Mother

More positive feedback from parents using GcMAF

GcMAF which is actually also the vitamin D binding protein seems to have broad impacts on the biology of at least some children with ASD.  The exact mechanism of action is unknown, although it is likely linked to activity of the Vitamin D receptor and its DNA regulatory actions.  These may include macrophage activation, regulation of calcium channels with alterations of intracellular calcium levels. Whatever the specific mechanisms of this molecule – it appears to be remarkably helpful at very small concentration in the body.  Dosing is tricky and requires experience to sort out the best strategies. I worked for over a year to find ways to improve this activity through homeopathic means and the combined program seems to be what many children need.

Here are some further parental observations.

From a mom: Dear Dr. Bradstreet, I wanted to let you know about the progress my child has made following your treatment advice with the GCMAF injections. We did 11 of the injections and have seen a number of major positive benefits. Sleeping through the night is now commonplace with only rare awakening. We have seen significant mood improvement, and behavioral concerns at school have almost entirely disappeared for an extended time period. Before the injections my child had infractions almost daily or every other day. Since the injections we have had only one issue in almost three months! Additionally, we have seen academic improvement as well. Papers coming home consistently have grades in the 90’s, 100’s, and even 100+. It seems as if there is much less effort required to study and retain information. Thank you for recommending this treatment to our family.

From a dad: Overall very good! Consistently excellent reports from school and home therapists. Parent observations: Continued improvement in potty training. He continues to be more aware, engaged and ‘present’. Receptive language and self control (in response to verbal requests) have been outstanding. During a recent trip to Halo Center in Austin – Mike demonstrated some amazing ‘open ended’ communication a tremendous step forward.  His communication was amazingly coherent and thoughtful.  We have been successful at getting him to communicate in similar fashion at home since returning.  However,  there is no change in book biting (his #1 vice). GcMAF has far exceeded our expectations.  (My Note: this child was largely unresponsive to all other therapies including intravenous immunoglobulin and other complex gut interventions.  However the parents stayed in the fight and found a path to significant improvements. Despite this we have not seen the oral-motor sensory problems diminish at this time, so our work is not done is helping this child).

GcMAF is exceeding my best expectations and parents agree

This next case is incredible and a true outlier in the spectrum of patients I have seen.  His original nagalase result was so high I was sure it was an error 7.8 (NL< 0.95).  These numbers were higher then any of my cancer patients, and nearly twice as high as my highest previously measured patient with autism.We’ve checked it 3 times and it was not an error. His numbers were even above a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia and a woman with metastatic breast cancer.  I was naturally worried about the big “C” – the good news is there was no evidence of cancer in this child with autism (THANK GOD). And for thankfully good news; our most recent testing reveals a level of 3.60 – still very elevated, but more than 50% below our starting point.  I recommended this child start on very low levels of GcMAF (the vitamin D binding protein which is demonstrated to lower elevated nagalase enzyme levels).  So we still have a long way to go, but you can judge for yourself, based on this mother’s report, if this is a significant therapy for autism. After you read this post – like me and his grandparents – you should have tears of joy.

Hi Dr. Bradstreet,

I want to share a GcMAF update on my very challenged, slow-responder, older kid.  Mike turns 13 next month and has done intensive bio-med every day of his life since he was two.  He has progressed slowly over the years, and with a lot of hard work using the Rapid Prompt Method, he has learned to communicate by typing out his thoughts on a keyboard.  He has complete awareness and understanding of everything going on around him and can spell out  his amazing thoughts, feelings and knowledge, yet he presents as severely challenged and would be labeled as low-functioning.  His severe apraxia has been one of his biggest challenges.  At the beginning of this school year, he was able to imitate most single sounds, single syllables, and could repeat some words if you gave him a verbal model first.  He did have a few approximations for his words that he would say unprompted, however, it was often just the beginning sounds of the word.

Enter GcMAF.  Mike’s nagalase numbers were so incredibly high (7.8) that my hope was to just get these nasty viruses out of him and maybe on down the road we would see some good results with that.  However, after 12 weeks of injections, we are blown away by improvements in his articulation and in spontaneous speech!  I don’t think we have ever had spontaneous speech, other than requests for the common things he wanted or stim words.  I dropped off my older son at a class recently, and called out “See you later”, and was thrilled to hear Mike call out “Bye Lucas” from the backseat!  He has been answering simple questions/making comments in conversation that he would never have been able to do without hearing a word modeled, such as “What color do you want to paint with first?” (he answered “yellow”) and “Come see what I put on the board to practice handwriting” (his comment, “circle”).  He has also been pointing to objects, looking at you, and then saying the name.  Again, he could not do this unprompted before.  It’s not just that this spontaneous speech is very clear, what’s impressive is that it is there at all.

His articulation is improving so much that we are starting to record phrases and short sentences and send them to relatives.  My parents haven’t seen him since the week of his first injection and were in tears hearing his recording of “happy birthday grandpa”.  I am truly talking about a kid that did not have the ability to put syllables together for understandable speech unless you broke it down, and said it syllable by syllable with him.  I certainly don’t mean that all of the sudden everything is clear.  We recorded that phrase 3 times before I sent it to my dad.  But their comment to me (through the tears) was “nobody is saying it with him!”.  That’s what’s exciting!

Michael spelled out to me about a year ago “Mom, do you really think I have the ability to ever be able to speak?”  I said it then, and I’ll say it now… “We will never give up.  You never know what may come along”.  Mike’s confidence is soaring.  His speech is getting louder, which I’m sure is directly related to the confidence, and everyone around him is impressed with what they are seeing.  Last night Mike spelled out to me “Mom I’m talking.  I just feel better being able to talk a little”.

We also see notable changes in fine motor (tracing and mazes that are not hand-over-hand and some legible letters), body awareness (isolating limbs for exercises), and a huge interest in new foods (including onions, yuk!).

I am so thrilled with our progress so far.  We have tried a lot of treatments over the years, many helping in their own way, but we have never had one that has started to move his speech in the right direction.  Getting this as he approaches his 13th birthday… well…who would’ve thought?

Thanks for bringing GcMAF to the autism world!


Mike’s Mom

Awesome – and this is why I became a doctor!


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